|Born||14 March 1879|
|Died||18 April 1955|
|Education||University of Zurich (1905), ETH Zurich (1896–1900), MORE|
The German-born physicist who developed the special and general theories of relativity and won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921 for his explanation of the photoelectric effect. His mother, the former Pauline Koch, ran the family household. He had one sister, Maja, born two years after Albert.
Einstein would compose that two’miracles’ deeply influenced his early years. The first was his encounter with a compass at age five. He had been mystified that invisible forces could deflect the needle. This would result in a lifelong fascination with invisible forces. The second miracle came at age 12 when he discovered that a novel of geometry, which he devoured, calling it ‘sacred little geometry novel.
This began to change, however, after he read science publications that encircle his religious beliefs. The challenge to established authority made a profound and lasting impression. At the Luitpold Gymnasium, Einstein often felt out of place and victimized by a Prussian-style instructional system that appeared to exude creativity and imagination. One teacher also told him that he would never amount to anything.
Yet another important influence on Einstein was a young medical student, Max Talmud (later Max Talmey), that regularly had dinner at the Einstein home. Talmud became an informal coach, introducing Einstein to higher mathematics and philosophy. A critical turning point happened when Einstein was 16. Talmud had earlier introduced him to some children’s science show from Aaron Bernstein, Naturwissenschaftliche Volksbucher (1867–68; Popular Books on Physical Science), where the author imagined riding alongside electricity that was travelling in a telegraph wire. Einstein then asked himself the question which could dominate his thinking about the next 10 years: What could a light beam seem like in the event you could run alongside it? If light were a wave, then the light beam should appear stationary, like a frozen wave. Even as a child, though, he understood that stationary light waves had never been seen, so there was an apology. Einstein also composed his first’scientific newspaper’ at that time (‘The Analysis of the State of Aether in Magnetic Fields’).
Einstein’s schooling was interrupted by his father’s repeated failures in business. Back in 1894, after his company failed to receive a significant contract to electrify town of Munich, Hermann Einstein moved to Milan, Italy, to function with a relative. Einstein was abandoned at a boarding home at Munich and also expected to finish his education. Alone, gloomy, and repelled by the looming potential of military obligation if he turned 16, Einstein ran away six weeks later and landed on the sidewalk of his surprised parents. His parents recognized the enormous problems that he faced as a school dropout and draft dodger without any expressive abilities. His prospects did not look promising. Luckily, Einstein could apply straight into the Eidgenössische Polytechnische Schule (‘Swiss Federal Polytechnic School’; in 1911, after growth in 1909 to complete university status, it had been renamed the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, ” or’Swiss Federal Institute of Technology’) at Zürich with no equivalent of a high school diploma if he passed its stiff entrance examinations. His marks showed that he excelled in mathematics and physics, but he neglected at French, chemistry, and mathematics. Due to his unique math scores had been permitted into the polytechnic about the condition that the first complete his formal education.